A WINTER'S JOURNEY Part 7
1. -Erzeroom. Russian benefits. -Turkish Officers and Soldiers. Ancient buildings. Leave Erzeroom . -Hassan Kallah. Dellee Baba. Pass of Deha. Struggles in snow. Topra Kallah. Karaklissia. -Koords. Euch -Klissia. -A bitter night and cold reception.— Diadeen.— Koordish Soorajees.— Ararat.— Bayazeed.– KoordishGuides.—The Kazlee-geul.- Defeated by snow . -Retrograde movement. A struggle for Lodgings.- A feast.- Koordish moderation.-Koordishguards. Return to Bayazeed. Lodgings there.—A singular rencontre. Unavoidable delay.
Bayazeed, 11th February 1833.
If you examine Macdonald Kinnear's map of Asia Minor and Armenia, you may find, on the south side of Mount Ararat, the place from which I now write.
A wild mountain -fortress it is, and good reason have I to remember it and pour on it my malison, for to me it has been a stumbling-block and a cause of much vexation, and,as I anticipate, of great delay.
Here we are storm staid at last - snowed up, like the folks in certain tales that you wot of — and in the hands of fellows who, if they dared, would fain bring our journey to a termination by stripping us of everything we possess. My whole journey, from Constantinople, till the moment when I write, has been a continued period of discomfort and fatigue and anxiety, such as I never before, under any circumstances, experienced.
Bayazeed is now Doğubayazıt (Kurdish: Bazîd, Armenian: Դարոյնք, romanized: Daruynk') is a district of Ağrı Province of Turkey, and it is the easternmost district of Turkey, lying near the border with Iran. Its elevation is 1625m and its area is 2,383 km². Doğubayazıt's population in 2010 was 115,354 (up from 73,794 in 1980) of which 69,447 live in the town of Doğubayazıt, the remainder in the surrounding countryside. Also known as Kurdava, the town was the capital of the self-declared Republic of Ararat, an independent Kurdish state centered in the Ağrı Province.https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Doğubayazıt
When I wrote you last from Erzeroom, we hoped by this time to be at or near Tabreez ; yet scarcely have we been able to reach this place, and every stage has been disputed foot by foot with the snow : in fact, so desperate has the cold been, that we were forced to abandon travelling by night for the most part; we could not get the people to move ; and, to say the truth, neither they nor we could have stood it. Even the bitterness of the early morning and late evening hours was scarcely to be borne ; nor will you be surprised at this, when I tell you that the cold varied from ten to fifteen degrees,and even as low as twenty degrees, below zero of Fahrenheit. But you will expect a more particular account of our progress, and a few words about Erzeroom ,the capital of Armenia .
On entering and riding through the city we had been struck with its miserable condition : half the houses were apparently in ruins, the other half in most squalid disrepair. Of the shops, not a third were open in the bazars : but this was partly occasioned by the inclement season ; for not only was it the Ramazan, when most Mahometans sleep during the day, but the cold had so benumbed the rest that few ventured out either to buy or to sell.
Erzeroom, until destroyed by the Russians in 1828-9, had been a flourishing place, and the great mart of trade, particularly for the purchase of European commodities by Persian traders, who used to come here for their investments instead of proceeding to Constantinople.
Erzurum (Armenian: Կարին, romanized: Karin,] Kurdish: Erzirom is a city in eastern Anatolia, Turkey. It is the largest city in and capital of Erzurum Province. It is situated 1,900 meters (6,233 feet) above sea level. Erzurum had a population of 361,235 in the 2000 census, increasing to 367,250 by 2010. The city's population consists mostly of ethnic Turks, with a Kurdish minority based on the south side.https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erzurum
Russo-Turkish War (1828–1829)
The Russo-Turkish War of 1828–1829 was sparked by the Greek War of Independence of 1821–1829. War broke out after the Ottoman Sultan Mahmud II closed the Dardanelles to Russian ships and revoked the 1826 Akkerman Convention in retaliation for Russian participation in October 1827 in the Battle of Navarino.https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russo-Turkish_War_(1828–1829)
1829, June: Saganlug and Erzurum: On 13 June Paskevich (12,340 infantry, 5,785 cavalry and 70 guns) left Kars for Erzurum. The Turks had 50,000 men including 30,000 nizams (new-model infantry). They stood between Hasankale and Zivin on the Erzurum-Kars road. Further east on the road an advanced force (20,000 under Haghki Pasha) held the Millidiuz (Meliduz) Pass over the Saganlug mountain.[c] Paskevich chose to take the inferior road to the north, place himself near Zevin between the two armies and attack Haghki Pasha from the rear. There were complex maneuvers and small actions. At 7:00 pm on the 19th Paskevich attacked and completely defeated the western army. Next day he turned east and captured Haghki Pasha and 19 guns, but most of his men managed to scatter. With the armies out of the way he set out for Erzurum. On 27 June, the city, which had not seen Christian soldiers within its walls for five centuries, surrendered.
1829: After Erzurum: From Erzurum the main road led northwest through Bayburt and Hart to Trebizond on the coast, a very formidable place that could only be taken with the fleet which was now busy on the Bulgarian coast. In July Russian Commander Burtsov went up this road and was killed at Hart. To retrieve Russia's reputation Paskevich destroyed Hart on 28 July. He sent an army west and brought it back, went up the Trebizond road, saw that nothing could be accomplished in that direction, and returned to Erzurum. Hesse and Osten-Sacken pushed north toward Batum and returned. The Pasha of Trebizond moved against Bayburt and was defeated on 28 September, the last action of the war. The Treaty of Adrianople (1829) was signed on 2 September 1829, but it took a month for the news to reach Paskevich. In October his army began marching home. Russia kept the ports of Anapa and Poti, the border forts of Atskhur, Akhalkalaki and Akhaltsikhe, but returned Ardahan and the Pashaliks of Kars, Bayazid and most of Akhaltsikhe Pashalik. In 1855 and 1877 Paskevich's work had to be done all over again. One consequence of the war was the migration of 90,000 Armenians from Turkish to Russian territory.
Tabreez is now Tabriz
For the administrative subdivision, see Tabriz County.
Tabriz (Persian: تبریز [tæbˈɾiːz] (About this soundlisten); Azerbaijani: تبریز) is a city in northwestern Iran, serving as the capital of East Azerbaijan Province. It is the fifth-most-populous city in Iran. In the Quru River valley in Iran's historic Azerbaijan region between long ridges of volcanic cones in the Sahand and Eynali mountains, Tabriz's elevation ranges between 1,350 and 1,600 metres (4,430 and 5,250 ft) above sea level. The valley opens up into a plain that gently slopes down to the eastern shores of Lake Urmia, 60 kilometres (37 miles) to the west. With cold winters and temperate summers, Tabriz is considered a summer resort. It was named World Carpet Weaving City by the World Crafts Council in October 2015 and Exemplary Tourist City of 2018 by the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tabriz
But when the Russians overran