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May 21, '21


Ferdinand von Zeppelin

Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin (German: Graf Ferdinand Adolf Heinrich August von Zeppelin; 8 July 1838 – 8 March 1917) was a German general and later inventor of the Zeppelin rigid airships, founding the company Luftschiffbau Zeppelin.

German strategic bombing during World War I

The best known German strategic bombing campaign during World War I was the campaign against Britain, although strategic bombing raids were carried out or attempted on other fronts. The main campaign against Britain started in January 1915 using airships. From then until the end of World War I the German Navy and Army Luftstreitkräfte mounted over 50 bombing raids on the United Kingdom. These were generally referred to as "Zeppelin raids": although both Zeppelin and Schütte-Lanz airships were used, the Zeppelin company was much better known and was responsible for producing the majority of the airships used. Weather conditions and night flying conditions made airship navigation and maintaining bombing accuracy difficult. Bombs were often dropped miles off target (one raid on London actually bombed Hull) and accurate targeting of military installations was impossible. The civilian casualties made the Zeppelins an object of hatred, and they were dubbed "baby-killers". With the development of effective defensive measures the airship raids became increasingly hazardous, and in 1917 the airships were largely replaced by aeroplanes.

Although the military effect of the raids was small, they caused widespread alarm, leading to the diversion of substantial resources from the Western Front and some disruption to industrial production. Concern about the conduct of defence against the raids, the responsibility for which was divided between the Admiralty and the Army, led to a parliamentary inquiry under Jan Smuts, whose report led to the creation of the Royal Air Force (RAF) on 1 April 1918. The defence organisation developed by the British was an important precursor of the fighter direction system that would prove vital in winning the Battle of Britain. The raids were also influential because they led to an overestimation of both the material and psychological effects of the bombing of cities. A minor consequence of the risk of being driven out of bed at night was the development of pajamas for women.

Airships made about 51 bombing raids on Britain during the war. These killed 557 and injured another 1,358 people. More than 5,000 bombs were dropped on towns across Britain, causing £1.5 million in damage. Eighty-four airships took part, of which 30 were either shot down or lost in accidents. Aeroplanes carried out 27 raids, dropping 246,774 lb (111,935 kg) of bombs for the loss of 62 aircraft, resulting in ground casualties of 835 dead, 1,972 injured and £1,418,272 of material damage.

Both the German airship and aeroplane bombing campaigns against Britain in the First World War have been referred to by some authors as the first Blitz, a reference to the later Blitz of the Second World War.

Zeppelin LZ 48

The Imperial German Navy Zeppelin LZ 48 (L 15) was a P-class World War I zeppelin.

Schütte-Lanz SL 11

The Schütte-Lanz SL 11 was a German military dirigible built in 1916 by Luftschiffbau Schütte-Lanz. It was the first German airship to be shot down while bombing England.ütte-Lanz_SL_11

Zeppelin LZ 72

LZ 72 (navy designation L 31) was an R Class super-zeppelin belonging to the Imperial German Navy. It was commanded by Kapitänleutnant Heinrich Mathy, an experienced commander, and took part in several raids over London during World War I.[1] It also participated in a reconnaissance role during the Sunderland raid of 19 August 1916. Its last flight was launched late at night on 1 October 1916. Several miles north of London, it was caught in searchlights and anti-aircraft fire. During this engagement, 2nd Lt. Wulstan J. Tempest was on patrol and spotted the zeppelin. He proceeded to engage the airship with incendiary rounds, causing the ship to burst into flames and crash in a field near Potter's Bar.[2][3] After this disastrous crash, the Imperial German Navy began decreasing its amount of zeppelin raids. The entire crew died, and were originally buried there but were transported to Cannock Chase in the 1960s.

LZ 61 (L 21)

The LZ 61 was a World War I German Navy airship, allocated the tactical numbering 'L 21'. It carried out a total of ten raids on England, and 17 reconnaissance missions.[1]

Zeppelin LZ 31

This article is about the Zeppelin LZ 31 that burnt on 16 September 1916. For the Zeppelin LZ 72 (L 31), see Zeppelin LZ 72.

The Imperial German Navy Zeppelin LZ 31 (L 6) was a M-class World War I zeppelin.

Zeppelin LZ 76

The Imperial German Army Zeppelin LZ 76 (L-33) was a R-class World War I zeppelin.

Zeppelin LZ 38

Zeppelin LZ 38 (designated LZ 38) was Zeppelin P Class airship of the German Imperial Navy. It was the first to bomb London, United Kingdom.

Zeppelin LZ 74

It has been suggested that L32 Zeppelin burial site Great Burstead be merged into this article. (Discuss)

LZ 74 (navy designation L 32) was an R Class super-zeppelin belonging to the Imperial German Navy.

Zeppelin LZ 95

Zeppelin LZ 95 (L 48) was a U-class zeppelin of the Imperial German Military

LZ 104 (L 59)

Zeppelin LZ 104 (construction number, designated L 59 by the German Imperial Navy) and nicknamed Das Afrika-Schiff ("The Africa Ship"), was a World War I German dirigible, famous for attempting a long-distance resupply mission to the beleaguered garrison of Germany's East Africa colony.[1]

1915 in aviation

This is a list of aviation-related events from 1915:

The War in the Air

The War in the Air: And Particularly How Mr. Bert Smallways Fared While It Lasted is a military science fiction novel written by H. G. Wells.

Zeppelin (film)

Zeppelin is a 1971 British World War I action-drama directed by Étienne Périer in Panavision and Technicolor. The film stars Michael York, Elke Sommer and Anton Diffring. Zeppelin depicts a fictitious German attempt to raid Britain in a giant Zeppelin to steal or destroy Magna Carta from its hiding place in one of Scotland's castles.

Additional Films

Photographic Archive


May 21, '21
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