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Jun 07, '20


Miltiades (/mɪlˈtaɪəˌdiːz/; Greek: Μιλτιάδης; c. 550 – 489 BC), also known as Miltiades the Younger, was a Greek Athenian citizen known mostly for his role in the Battle of Marathon as well as for his downfall afterwards. He was the son of Cimon Coalemos, a renowned Olympic chariot-racer, and the father of Cimon, the noted Athenian statesman.

This bust of Miltiades is nearly contemporary.

Tyrant of the Thracian Chersonese. His son Cimon or Kimon rose to be a great man in Athenian politics. Probably Miltiades was the author of the Athenian victory of Marathon, but Miltiades was a complex man, a pirate, a warlord, and a supporter of Athenian democracy.


He became a vassal of Darius I of Persia, joining Darius’ expedition against the Scythians around 513 BC (thus serving alongside Histaeus and probably Hipponax, Heraclitus, Aristagoras, and possibly Artaphernes…a small world!).

He joined the Ionian Revolt of 499 BC against Persian rule, establishing friendly relations with Athens and capturing the islands of Lemnos and Imbros (which he eventually ceded to Athens). However, the revolt collapsed in 494 BC and in 492 BC Miltiades fled to Athens to escape a retaliatory Persian invasion. His son Metiochos was captured by the Persians and made a lifelong prisoner, but was nonetheless treated honourably as a de facto member of the Persian nobility.

Arriving in Athens, Miltiades initially faced a hostile reception for his tyrannical rule in the Chersonese. Having spent three years in prison, he was sentenced to death for the crime of tyranny. However, he successfully presented himself as a defender of Greek freedoms against Persian despotism and escaped punishment. He was elected to serve as one of the 10 generals (strategoi) for 490 BC. He is often credited with devising the tactics that defeated the Persians in the Battle of Marathon later that year.

Marathon helmet

Helmet of Miltiades the Younger, Archaeological Museum of Olympia.

This helmet is one Miltiades sent from Marathon to Olympia as spoils of the contest there.

The following year, 489 BC, Miltiades led an Athenian expedition of seventy ships against the Greek-inhabited islands that were deemed to have supported the Persians. The expedition was not a success. The fleet attacked Paros, which had been conquered by the Persians, but failed to take the island. Miltiades suffered a bad leg wound during the campaign and became incapacitated. His failure prompted an outcry on his return to Athens, enabling his political rivals to exploit his fall from grace. Charged with treason, he was sentenced to death, but the sentence was converted to a fine of fifty talents. This was a huge and unaffordable sum by the standards of the time. He was sent to prison where he died, probably of gangrene from his wound. The debt was later paid by his son Cimon.

The name “Miltiades” derives from “μίλτος” (miltos), a red ochre clay used as paint. It was a name often given to red-haired babies. It was Miltiades’s father’s name as well. He may not have had red hair!

Stonewall was Miltiades

General Robert E Lee was Aristides and General Jackson was Miltiades!

General Thomas Jonathan "Stonewall" Jackson (January 21, 1824 – May 10, 1863) served as a Confederate general (1861–1863) during the American Civil War, and became one of the best-known Confederate commanders after General Robert E. Lee. Jackson played a prominent role in nearly all military engagements in the Eastern Theater of the war until his death, and had a key part in winning many significant battles.

Lee wrote to Jackson after learning of his injuries, stating: "Could I have directed events, I would have chosen for the good of the country to be disabled in your stead." Jackson died of complications from pneumonia on May 10, 1863, eight days after he was shot. On his deathbed, though he became weaker, he remained spiritually strong, saying towards the end: "It is the Lord's Day; my wish is fulfilled. I have always desired to die on Sunday."

Dr. McGuire wrote an account of Jackson's final hours and last words:

A few moments before he died he cried out in his delirium, 'Order A.P. Hill to prepare for action! Pass the infantry to the front rapidly! Tell Major Hawks—' then stopped, leaving the sentence unfinished. Presently a smile of ineffable sweetness spread itself over his pale face, and he said quietly, and with an expression, as if of relief, “Let us cross over the river, and rest under the shade of the trees.”

In 1991 I shed a tear as I stood by Jackson’s bed and listened to Park Ranger recount the passing of great General.

Xanthippus and the Foot Cavalry

I fought with Miltiades as Xanthippus (Yellow Horse) and the Athenian Hoplites at the Battle of Marathon (490 BC).

Foot cavalry was an oxymoron coined to describe the rapid movements of infantry troops serving under Confederate General Thomas Jonathan "Stonewall" Jackson during the American Civil War (1861–1865). The use of the words "foot" and "cavalry" to describe the same troops were seemingly in conflict with one another, as unlike normal cavalry units with horses, his men were infantry troops, usually on foot (although occasionally traveling by train).

To achieve the reputation for amazing speeds of travel, Stonewall Jackson used a combination of great audacity, excellent knowledge, and shrewd use of the terrain, added to the ability to inspire his troops to great feats of marching and fighting. His men endured forced marches and he used an intimate knowledge of the passes and railroad tunnels along the Blue Ridge Mountains of Virginia to move between the Piedmont region and the Shenandoah Valley with unanticipated rapidity, confounding his opponents in the Union leadership.

Because his opponents learned early in the War that they could not accurately predict his location, Jackson and his "foot cavalry" are considered by many historians to have been a major factor in leadership failures of U.S. President Abraham Lincoln and General George B. McClellan during the Peninsula Campaign. In fear of Jackson, Lincoln ordered extra troops held back from McClellan's expedition to protect Washington, D.C.. McClellan, whose actions were later seen as overcautious, was unnerved by Jackson's sudden appearance in front of him at the beginning of the Seven Days Battles. In combination, these actions of Lincoln and McClellan contributed significantly to the failure of the main mission of the Peninsula Campaign, which was to capture the Confederate capital of Richmond in the summer of 1862. Richmond would not be captured until the last days of the war.

In honor of Jackson and his "foot cavalry" there is a 100-mile trail run in Fort Valley, Va with a division called "Stonewall Jackson Foot Cavalry Division".

The Tomb of Xanthippus

On “my” tomb I am seen hold a foot because that is what saved Greece and the Western Culture of the modern World.

The Hoplites were the Foot Cavalry of Ancient Greece and only eclipsed by the Zulus who could run 70 miles in 24 hours and still fight a battle!

Letter IV: From Alexander Baillie Kell (1828 - 1912)

Show “I” was aware of the strategy and tactics of my Generals.

“June the 21st

I write you a few lines more to inform you that our cavalry had a severe fight with the enemy two days ago, about two thousand strong on each side, but our squadron was not engaged in it, the loss in the two squadrons engaged was 4 killed & 25 wounded; in the other cavalry there was only two killed & I don't know how many wounded, the Yanks were finally driven back with great slaughter. I enclose you a few dollars with which please get me a pencil for letter writing: you can cut it in half if it is too long to enclose the full length & please send it as soon as you are able to get it. I suppose Nath's regt. is on the left as all the forces are being concentrated there & towards the centre as Johnston is doing his best to bring on a general engagement.

Ever Your Affectionate brother Baillie

On the reverse side:

Gen. Lee has telegraphed Gen. Johnson(sic) that he has given Grant the most complete whipping of any Gen. That has been in command of that army & our army here has all confidence in Johnston & the opinion is that he will serve Gen. Sherman as he did McClellan before Richmond having retreated over a hundred miles & had it not been for Magruder and Huger, the whole Yankee army would have been compelled to surrender. Do let me know when you hear anything more of brother and send it to H Troop, 5th Ga. Cav. Wheeler's Corps. Army of East Tennessee - Atlanta - Ga.

With my best regards to your father, I remain

Your Affectionate brother


P.S. Please excuse the condition that my paper is in which became so after writing the letter &

had to keep it in my pocket not being able to get it to Marietta.

Reproduced by kind permission of the Rare Book, Manuscript, & Special Collections Library, Duke University, Durham NC.

Notes: This letter is clearly written just before the Battle of Kennesaw Mountain, June 27th 1864. The

regiment was engaged at Kennesaw Mountain on the 19th and at Big Shanty on the 20
Jun 07, '20
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