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The Aryans or “Noble Ones”
Jan 20, '22

The Noble Ones

The Aryans or “Noble Ones” were thought to have remained together on the Caucasian steppes from about 4500 BCE until about 2500 BCE when groups began to migrate. Their single language, known by linguists as Proto-Indo-European, evolved into many of the Asiatic and European languages such as Sanskrit, Persian, German, Gaelic, Latin, Greek, Russian, and English. The Indo-European language family has the largest number of speakers of all language families as well as the widest dispersion around the world.

Forensic Faccia reconstruction of a male and female Yamnaya

Recent ancient DNA studies indicate that the Proto-Indo-European language likely traveled first with the Yamnaya steppe pastoralists when they migrated from the vast grasslands of the Eurasian steppes into Europe around 4,000–3,000 BCE. They were one of the earliest peoples to train horses and to have wheeled carts that allowed them to manage large herds comprising sheep, goats and cattle. Bringing their Corded Ware Complex culture with them, they spoke a language linked to Proto-German, from which all of today’s 400 Indo-European languages spring. They interbred with local Europeans, descendants of local hunter-gatherers and farmers who had come from Anatolia. Within a few hundred years, the Yamnaya contributed to at least half of central Europeans’ genetic ancestry.

The later Andronovo peoples, whose ancestry matched the early farmers of Europe and the Yamnaya, spread back from Europe eastward into Central and South Asia in the following 1,500 years.

The Andronovo peoples seem most likely to be the Aryans referred to in this article.

They called themselves Aryans – which in Classical Sanskrit means “honourable,” “respectable,” or “noble.”

We will look more closely at the Aryans as an example of pre-Axial life for two reasons. First, we know a lot about their life from an early written source: the Avesta. Second, their story shows clearly the type of conditions under which a transition from pre-Axial to Axial thought took place in all Axial communities. The Avesta was transmitted orally until the Axial Age when it became the foundational scripture of what, in many respects, may be called the very first Axial religion: Zoroastrianism.

Yasna 28.1, Ahunavaiti Gatha. Yasna is the name of the primary liturgical collection of texts of the Avesta as well as the name of the principal Zoroastrian act of worship at which those verses are recited.

The Aryans had no formal governing structures as far as we know, though each tribe had two groups: the priests, and everyone else, the producers. They led peaceful, fairly static, simple lives. Karen Armstrong in her book The Great Transformation tells us: “Like other ancient peoples, the Aryans experienced an invisible force within themselves and in everything that they saw, heard, and touched. Storms, winds, trees, and rivers were not impersonal, mindless phenomena. The Aryans felt an affinity with them, and revered them as divine. Humans, deities, animals, plants, and the forces of nature “spirit,” which the Avestans called mainyu and the Sanskrit-speakers manya. It animated, sustained, and bound them all together.”

As time went on their beliefs became formalized into a pantheon of gods, with an overall God of the Sky called Dyaus Pitr, creator of the world, until he became too remote and was forgotten in favor of more accessible deities. These were easily identified with natural and cosmic forces: the God of the Sun, the Gods of the Earth, the Moon and the Winds. Fire, water and the Soul of the Bull were Gods associated with ritual practices and as such were particularly venerated.

In addition, they had a class of Gods called Ahuras – associated with oaths and promise-keeping. The Ahuras originally included a divine power to enforce oaths that later became the responsibility of three main Ahuras: Varuna the guardian of order, Mithra the god of storm, thunder and rain, and Mazda the Lord of justice and wisdom. These three Ahuras were assisted by Devas. Speech was a Deva – so oaths, once uttered were absolutely binding and lies once told were absolutely evil. The sound of a chant was holy and the act of listening was a sacred act, bringing the listener nearer to the Gods.

Other Devas were the gods of courage, friendship, glory, and justice. In the teachings of Zoroaster, as the beginning of the Axial Age approaches, Ahura Mazda would become a supreme being.

Daily religious ritual and sacrifice to the gods helped the Aryans maintain productivity, harmony and Rta Asha – a kind of natural law that maintained a cosmic order against Druj – disorder.

According to the Avesta the earth was created in seven stages. First the sky came into being – this was an inverted bowl of beautiful stone. Second the water was created at the bottom of the sky shell, and then third, the earth that floated on water. Fourth, the gods added one plant, fifth, one animal (a bull), and then in the sixth stage, man. Fire was added in the seventh stage, pervading the entire world and residing in seen and unseen places.

As a final act of creation the Gods assembled and performed the first sacrifice. The primordial plant, the bull, and the man were crushed and from them the vegetable, animal and human realms were created and populated the earth. New life and death were created and the world was set in motion. Self-sacrifice would become a central idea in the Axial Age. Without it progress, whether materially or spiritually, would be impossible.

The Aryans performed rituals that reenacted this primordial sacrifice to maintain cosmic order and ensure the continuation of the life cycle. Ritual libations and sacrifices were performed at fire altars both in the home and in public spaces where sacred fires were kept burning. They would ensure that vital elements were returned to the gods who in turn would sustain their way of life on earth.

Golden bull’s head from Altyn-Depe in Turkmenistan, inhabited in the 3rd to 2nd millennia BCE, abandoned around 1600 BCE.

The Aryans revered life and like all pre-Axial peoples, they felt a strong affinity between themselves and animals. They ate only consecrated animal flesh that had been offered to the gods, with prayers to ensure the animal’s safe return to the Soul of the Bull. They believed the Soul of the Bull was the life energy of the animal world, whose spirit was energized through their sacrifice of animal blood. This nourished the deity and helped the gods look after the animal world and ensured plenty. Animal sacrifice and other most sacred rituals required special sacred spaces and professional priests.

The primordial plant, the bull, and the man were crushed and from them the vegetable, animal and human realms were created and populated the earth.

An important ritual included a sacred beverage called Soma or Haoma made from a plant that is unknown today. This “golden drink” had properties that allowed the drinker to be ecstatically transported to the realm of the Gods. Under its influence he achieved a sense of immortality and freedom from suffering and fear. He communed with the Gods, expanding his mind to consider the deepest possibilities of life. This, of course, was a temporary experience, one that the heirs of these techniques would later, in the Axial age, seek to achieve through introspection and ascetic practices.

The Andronovo were the first to ride horse-drawn spoked-wheeled chariots, which they did first from about 2,000 BCE. Their sudden mobility and the obvious advantages it conferred completely disrupted the stable, conservative culture, which erupted into areas of widespread lawlessness.

The Aryans sudden mobility completely disrupted the stable, conservative culture, which erupted into areas of widespread lawlessness.

With this chaotic new way of life, with men stealing and looting sheep and cows rather than tending them, a third class of individuals arose. These were the warlords (thieves) and professional warriors, whose lives were spent in raiding, rough living and hard drinking, and whose ambitions were to gain personal wealth and glory. Respect for Rta asha, the natural order central to life up to this point, was disrupted as villages and towns were wiped out, and might ruled the day. New gods became acceptable to this warrior class, the god Indra, for example, who drank the sacred soma to fuel his warlike frenzy, passion and daring, was worshipped far more than Varuna. Traditional Aryans were now bewildered, frightened, many of them suffering and completely disoriented by the chaos that now threatened their erstwhile conservative lives.

It was as a reaction to this suffering, chaos and perceived evil-doing that the prophet Zoroaster arose in what is now Iran. 

Indo-Aryan Migration c. 1750 BCE

Around 1500 BCE, the Aryans crossed the Hindu Kush mountains and came in contact with the Indus Valley Civilization. This was a large migration that scholars used to think caused the collapse of the Indus Valley Civilization, but, since there is no evidence of an invasion or mass movement, more recent speculation is that different Aryan bands gradually infiltrated the Indian continent.

That the Aryans came from outside India was the traditional understanding, but this interpretation was contested by a revisionist position claiming that Aryan culture and religion originated within India and developed from the Indus Valley civilisation.

Genetic data solved the issue once and for all. It also revealed that all but one of the steppe-enriched populations are historically priestly groups, including Brahmins – traditional custodians of texts written in the ancient Indo-European language Sanskrit.

“The finding that Brahmins often have more steppe ancestry than other groups in South Asia, controlling for other factors, provides a fascinating new argument in favor of a steppe origin for Indo-European languages in South Asia,” said David Reich, professor of genetics in the Blavatnik Institute at Harvard Medical School.

As Karen Armstrong says: “The language of the ritual Sanskrit text known as the Vedas (Knowledge) is so similar to Avestan and its cultural assumptions so close to the Gathas that it is almost certainly an Aryan scripture.”

Aryans In Chelyabinsk, Russia … City Under The Sea, Japan

Prof Dipak Basu speaks :

British linguist Max-Muller invented that ancient Aryans invaded India around 1500 BC, drove out the Dravidians from their land, and imported the Hindu civilization along with Sanskrit language from the steppes of central Asia.

The theory buttressed justification for British occupation of India, as Winston Churchill remarked. Although there was no archeological evidence to support this theory, it has become the most important doctrine on the ancient Indian history. It was opposed by prominent historians like Ramesh Chandra Mazumdar and archeologists like Rakhaldas Banerjee and S.P.Gupta, but pro-British historians of India have so far disregarded all arguments and evidence against AIT, Aryan Invasion Theory.

However, some recent archeological discoveries in India, Russia and Japan have pushed back the antiquity of the Aryans to at least 6000BC and proved beyond doubt that the ancient Aryans were not nomadic tribes from Central Asia but had very advanced urban civilizations. Russian archeologists and linguists also proved that the Aryans have migrated not from the Russian steppes but came to Russia via Armenia and Georgia.

This compellingly adds to evidence that India was the original home of the Aryans.

Advanced civilization of the Aryans in Chelyabinsk, Russia

President Putin visited one of the most mysterious places on planet Earth – the ruins of the ancient town of Arkaim, which is situated on the outskirts of the city of Chelyabinsk. Pravda reported (on 16 July 2005) about the starling discovery of ruins of a very advanced civilization of Indo-Aryan origin, which was at least 4000 years old in Arkaim.

The Arkaim valley in the south of Ural was supposed to be flooded in 1987; local authorities were going to create a water reservoir there to irrigate the drought prone fields. However, scientists found strange circles in the center of the valley : the authorities gave archaeologists time to explore the area. Scientists were shocked to discover that Arkaim was the same age as Egypt and Babylon. Archaeological excavations showed that the people, who inhabited Arkaim, represented the ancient Indo-Aryan civilization.

Ancient Arkaim not only had a city, but also a temple and an astronomic observatory.

Prof. Gennady Zdanovich, chairman of the archaeological expedition said, “We achieved what seemed to be absolutely unreal. How did people of such ancient civilization manage to accomplish incredible technological progress, which still seems to be unachievable nowadays?”

A group of Russian researchers, headed by Prof. Vadim Chernobrovy, has recently returned from the mysterious region. He said, “A flight above Arkaim on board a helicopter gives you an incredible impression. The huge concentric circles on the valley are clearly visible. The town and its outskirts are all enclosed in the circles. We still do not know what point the gigantic circles have, whether they were made for defensive, scientific, educational, or ritual purposes. Some researchers say that the circles were actually used as the runway for an ancient spaceport.”

Researchers discovered that the ancient town was equipped with the storm sewage system, which helped Arkaim`s residents avoid floods. The people were protected against fires as well : timbered floorings and houses themselves were imbued with fireproof substance. It was a rather strong compound, the remnants of which can still be found in the ruins of the town.

Each house was outfitted with “all modern conveniences”, as they would say nowadays. There was a well, an oven, and dome-like food storage in every house. The well was branching out into two underground trenches: one of them was directed to the oven and the other one ended in the food storage. The trenches were used to supply chilly air to the oven and to the food storage. The cool air from the trenches was also creating a very powerful traction force in the Aryan oven, which made it possible to smelt bronze there.

The central square in Arkaim was the only object of square shape in the town. Judging upon traces of bonfires that were placed in a specific order on the square, the place was used as a site for certain rituals. Arkaim was built according to a previously projected plan as a single complicated complex, which also had an acute orientation on astronomic objects.

Prof.Grigoryev of the Institute of History and Archaeology, Ural branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Chelyabinsk, Russia, said recently, “ There are no features of “Steppe cultures” in cultures of India and Iran. There are no Finno-Ugric borrowings in languages of Avesta and Rig Veda.” According to him (1996, 1998), Ancient Aryans came originally from Iran to Russia via Syria, Anatolia, Armenia and formed the vast cities in Sintashta-Petrovka area near Chelyabinsk. Earlier, linguistic experts Prof.Gamkrelidze and Prof.Ivanov (1984) confirmed that explanation.

How far is Iran from Sindh-Saraswati valley ? We also know from the Puranas, that Aryans were divided into two groups, Sur of India and Asura of Iran. Russian archeologists are not aware of the submarine ruins of Dwarka and Cambay yet. If they would know, it would be possible to prove what Rakhaldas Banerjee and Ramesh Chadra Mazumdar said all along that India was the origin of the ancient Aryans, who had migrated to Russia via Armenia. The discovery made by the Russian archeologists of the temple of Mithra under the basement of the world’s oldest official Christian church in Yerevan, Armenia, shows that link.

Archeological Details of Arkaim in Chelyabinsk

The site is known by the Russian archeologists since at least 70 years, as Sintasha-Petrovka cultural area of ancient Aryans, but it was ignored by the Anglo-American historians. Sintashta-Petrovka cultural area runs along the eastern Urals of the Eurasian steppe for about 400 km south of Chelabyansk and to the east for about 200 km. There are 23 sites recognized as belonging to this group.

The Sintashta burials, and those found at other Arkiam sites, vary greatly in detail. These burials provide archaeological evidence of the burial rituals set down in the Rig Veda and Avesta and, thus, these are called Indo-Iranian.

The sites have been called “towns” and, most of them have been discovered through aerial photography; they are laid out in round, square, or oval shapes. While only two of these “towns”, Arkaim and Sintashta, have been excavated largely, they are characterized as being fortified, having connecting houses, and having extensive evidence for metallurgy.

The excavator of Sintashta, Gening (1979), has shown that the burials from Sintashta do, how-ever, provide archaeological evidence for numerous aspects of the burial rituals set down in texts of Rig Veda and Avesta. The Avesta was composed by Zorathustra, who attempted to erase the earlier practice of worship of God Mithra.

The dating of the Avesta is problematic, since there are disputes about the time of Zorathustra. According to Xanthus of Lydia, it was 6480 BC; according to Aristotle it was 6350 BC ( in Heredotus). According to Ferdowsi’s Shahnamah, it was 6600 BC; according to the Roman historian Plutarch it was 6000 BC.

Suppose we accept it was 6000BC, and given the fact the Rig Veda was older than Avesta, as Zorathustra has tried to erase out worship of Vedic gods in favour of only one God Asura Mazda, Aryans were in India before 6000 BC.

Sintashta Culture, of which Arkaim was a part, was formed in Chelyabinsk in about 2000 BC, according to radiocarbon tests (Trifonov 1997). This culture was spread over a vast geographic region from the Dnieper River in Ukraine to eastern Kazakhstan. The investigation of the metal ores was undertaken using spectral analysis. The results indicated that the ores recovered from Sintashta settlements did not contain arsenic while in contrast, slag retrieved from the same sites contained high levels of the element. However, metal structures of the Caucasus and Anatolia are similar to the metal structure of the Sintashta Culture, and the tradition of alloying during the ore smelting stage was well established in the Caucasus region.

All the features of the Syro-Anatolian cultures have parallels with the archaeological cultures of this region, the most remarkable of which are Sintashta fortified settlements that are identical to Anatolian settlements. In addition, there are many analogies with the Sintashta Culture in ceramics, and stone and Syro-Anatolian metal artifacts.

This is the basis of the conclusion suggested by the Russian archeologists and linguistics (Gamkrelidze and Ivanov, 1984; Grigoryev, 1996, 1998) that Aryans migrated from Iran to Armenia and then to Russia; Aryans never came down from Russia to India. According to them, Aryans most possibly had started migrating from Iran in 8000BC. They had reached Balkan Peninsula and Anatolia in about 6000 BC and had reached Russian steppes in Chelyabinsk in about 4000BC. By that time, they had very advanced urban civilization, not at all nomadic in any way. The Indo-Europeanization of Armenia, Georgia and Ukraine lasted for a long time, from the Neolithic to the beginning of the Iron Age. In the Middle Bronze Age Indo-Aryans came to Bulgaria, former Yugoslavia, and Greece. Russian archeologists were not aware of the Sindhu-Saraswati civilization or Dwarka. I have drawn the attention of Prof.Grigoryev to these ruins. Perhaps in future, he and his team will prove the migration of the Aryans had started from India, not from Iran.

Relationship with Krishna’s Dwarka

The discoveries at Gulf of Cambay by the National Institute of Ocean Technology established, using carbon-14, the date of wood samples excavated from under the sea at 7,500 BC, and the existence of a civilization about that period.

Krishna’s Dwarka existed some 4,000 years ago. There was a rise in the sea level of about 30 metres over a period 7,500 years, at the rate of 10 metres in 3,500-3,800 years. Eroded debris and pottery provided evidence of a port town destroyed by sea about 3,500 years ago.

Marine archaeologists in India have found enough proof to assert that Mahabharata is not a myth, but history. Discovery of submerged buildings of the legendary city of Dwarka indicate that Indians were masters in town planning and maritime activity, 4,000 years ago. The rise in sea level in Dwarka is a scientific fact. Studies have proved that the sea considerably and suddenly rose to submerge the city.

Harivamsha describes the submerging of Dwarka saying Krishna instructed Arjuna, who was then visiting Dwarka; to evacuate the residents of the city as the sea was going to engulf the city. “On the seventh day (of Krishna saying this), as the last of the citizens were leaving the city, the sea entered the streets of Dwarka.”

Ruins of Dwarka also show a very advanced civilization, which could not be formed by semi-nomadic Aryans coming down from central Asia in 1500 BC. The city originally itself could be about 6000 years old. Bankim Chandra Chatterjee in his essay ‘Is Krisna a historical figure’ (in ‘Krisna Charita’) has calculated the time of the war described in Mahabharata. According to him, the war took place about 3700 BC.

Aryan city under the sea near Japan

Another nail was struck on the British theory of Aryan invasion with the discovery of ruins of a city, at least 6000 years old, under the sea near Okinawa, Japan. The original people of Japan were Indo-Aryans and the structure of the ruins has close similarities to the ancient architecture of India, Iran, and Egypt.

It was chanced upon when a unique structure was found beneath the sea where Japan`s western most Yonaguni Island lies. In 1997, an investigation team from the University of the Ryukyus in Okinawa discovered the site. Prof. Masaaki Kimura, professor at the University of the Ryukyus, a marine geologist, said, “We found that the ruins are at least 6000 years old. It could go back another 4000 years when we consider the length of time before they sank into the water.”

Okinawa was once connected to the Asian continent. Geologic chronology shows that the area in Yonaguni was already underwater 6000 years ago. Prof. Kimura says “During the past 10,000 years, the ocean water level rose about 40 meters. From this fact, it is only natural to think that it was part an ancient culture that is now deep in water. All of a sudden, such an advanced civilization was discovered; so we believe there must be a lost culture before that.”

(in his book “Mu Tairiku Wa Ryukyu ni Atta” or “The Legendary Sunken Continent Was In The Ryukyus” published in 1997)

Marine geologists think that the lost civilization was once on ground level, but now it has sunk into the ocean. The ocean surface has risen by 100 meters in the past 20,000 years.

Undersea ruins near Yonaguni Island stand 25 meters tall and 100 meters long. This megalithic structure was artificially formed. There are a number of these types of ruins off the coast of Okinawa. However, this one in Yonaguni is the largest, and the only authenticated one. The structure of the buildings are not Mongolian in character but related to the ruins of India, Middle East and Egypt.

The ancient people of Japan were not Mongolian, but Indo-Aryans; Mongolians began to migrate to Japan about 2000 years ago. The decendants of the ancient Indo-Aryans of Japan, Aino people, are still there in the northern island of Hokkaido; they have distinct Indo-Aryan physical features. Details of this lost civilizations and photos of the undersea buildings.

I have mentioned this discovery to Dr. Shila Tripati of the Marine Archaeology Centre, National Institute of Oceanography in Goa. Dr.Tripati has contacted Prof.Kimura already and we hope in future their joint efforts will show the link between Cambay, Dwarka and Okinawa’s undersea ruins of very advanced civilization of the Indo-Aryans.

Joker in the pack … Prof D N Jha of Delhi University

Given these overwhelming evidences of archeological findings in India, Russia and Japan, it is surprising that the Anglo-American historians and their Indian followers are still insisting on the Aryan invasion theory, and of their coming into north-west India from Central Asia around 1500 BC !

Prof D N Jha recently wrote a book and several articles to prove that ancient semi-nomadic Aryans who, according to him, invaded India about 1500 B C and used to eat beef. (in his book, The Myth of the Holy Cow, Verso, 2002). To prove his thesis he does not hesitate to put forward fraudulent claims and misinterpret facts.

He quotes from Rig Veda (VIII.43.11) as ” Agni …is one whose food is the ox and the barren cow”. This is a wrong quotation. The exact quotation should be ” Let us serve Agni with our hymns, disposer, fed on ox and cow, who bears the soma on his back” (in Griffith’s translation of Rig Veda). It does not mean ancient Aryans used to eat ox and cow, but Agni can dispose of any wealth, ox and cow used to be the symbol of wealth.

He also quotes, Rig Veda ( X.79.6), as ” Cow was cut up with a sword or an axe”.

This quotation is horribly incorrect. The exact quotation should be, ” Agni, hast thou committed sin or treason among the Gods ? In ignorance, I ask thee. In play or otherwise hast he, the gold-hued and toothless one, cut his food up as a knife does of its victim” (in Griffith’s translation of Rig Veda).

It does not say anything about cutting cows or ox. Using these false quotations he has tried to prove Aryans used to eat beef. And, no, he offers nothing on all the evidence that has turned up in Chelyabinsk, Okinawa, Dwarka, and Cambay !

Given their advanced ways in Chelyabinsk, it is untenable to hold that the Indo-Aryan civilization was born only 4000 years ago, when the ruins itself are of the same age. It is probable the ancient Aryans have migrated eastwards to Japan, as there is evidence that the Aino people, descendants of the ancient Indo-Aryans in Japan, came originally from eastern Siberia. The ruins of submarine city near Okinawa were probably developed by the same Indo-Aryans nearly 10,000 years ago.

Where does that leave the theory propagated by Max-Muller ? And how do the assorted British historians and their willing partners like Romila Thaper, D N Jha and Irfan Habib still parrot the pet theme ?

At a recent conference of the Indian History Congress, dominated by the Indian historians of uncritical kind, it was proposed that there should not be any archeological excavations in any of the ancient religious sites in India ! What are they afraid of ? Obviously, it is clear… discovery of the truth.

Prof. Dipak Basu

Professor in International Economics

Nagasaki University, Japan

“Recently India government has refused any more funds for the archeological excavationsof the dried –up river bed of the legendary Swaraswati river, along whose path ruins of much of the very ancient civilization of India lie. The argument of the India government is that the river is a myth and the British theory of ‘Aryan invasion’ is the established truth. Although Karl Marx and the international Marxism has nothing against Indian archeology, Indian Marxists – CPI (M) – have taken a very strong position in support of the Anglo-American view of Indian history …”

You decide : Why ?

Marine archaeology in the Gulf of Cambay

Marine archeology in the Gulf of Khambhat - earlier known as Gulf of Cambay - centers around controversial findings made in December 2000 by the National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT) under the Gulf of Khambhat, a bay on the Arabian Sea on the west coast of India. The structures and artifacts discovered by NIOT are the subject of contention. The major disputes surrounding the Gulf of Khambhat Cultural Complex (GKCC) are claims about the existence of submerged city-like structures, the difficulty associating dated artifacts with the site itself, and disputes about whether stone artifacts recovered at the site are actually geofacts or artifacts. One major complaint is that artifacts at the site were recovered by dredging, instead of being recovered during a controlled archeological excavation. This leads archeologists to claim that these artifacts cannot be definitively tied to the site. Because of this problem, prominent archeologists reject a piece of wood that was recovered by dredging and dated to 7500 BC as having any significance in dating the site. The surveys were followed up in the following years and two palaeo channels of old rivers were discovered in the middle of the Khambhat area under 20–40 m (66–131 ft) water depths, at a distance of about 20 km (12 mi) from the present day coast.


Arkaim (Russian: Аркаим) is an archaeological site, dated c. 2050-1900 BCE, of an ancient fortified settlement, belonging to Sintashta culture, situated in the steppe of the Southern Ural, 8.2 km (5.10 mi) north-to-northwest of the village of Amursky and 2.3 km (1.43 mi) south-to-southeast of the village of Alexandrovsky in the Chelyabinsk Oblast of Russia, just north of the border with Kazakhstan. It was discovered in 1987 by a team of archaeologists led by Gennady Zdanovich, preventing the planned flooding of the area for the creation of a reservoir. Arkaim is attributed to the early Proto-Indo-Iranian of the Sintashta culture, which some scholars believe represents the proto-Indo-Iranians before their split into different groups and migration to Central Asia and from there to Persia and India and other parts of Eurasia.


Yonaguni (Japanese: 与那国島, Hepburn: Yonaguni-jima, Yonaguni romanization: Dunan-chima, older Juni-shima, Yaeyama romanization: Yunoon-zïma, Okinawan romanization: Yunaguni-jima), one of the Yaeyama Islands, is the westernmost inhabited island of Japan, lying 108 kilometers (67 mi) from the east coast of Taiwan, between the East China Sea and the Pacific Ocean proper. The island is administered as the town of Yonaguni, Yaeyama Gun, Okinawa, and there are three settlements: Sonai, Kubura, and Higawa.

Jan 20, '22
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