In 2011 the geneticist working on the Starchild Skull discovered that its mtDNA (the part of DNA passed only through the maternal line) was radically different from human DNA.
The maximum number of mtDNA differences between all humans is 120. The Starchild Skull has between 800-1,000. This is a partial result, but it is enough to be definitive: the Skull?s mtDNA is not human.
Early in 2011, a geneticist attempting to recover Starchild Skull DNA identified four fragments that matched with human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Comparing those fragments with matching fragments from human mtDNA produced an astonishing result. In every comparison, the Starchild presented many more nucleotide differences than are normally found among humans.
In one comparison detailed in this report, the compared segments of human mtDNA came from one of its most highly conserved regions. Across 167 nucleotides in this segment, only 1 single variation is found among the 33 human haplogroups. In contrast, the same length of Starchild mtDNA has 17 differences! Of those 17, a significant number should be confirmed by multiple repetitions of the test. If several are confirmed (which is highly likely), it will be enough evidence to establish a new earthly species.
The Starchild Skull is a 900-year-old human-like bone skull with distinctly non-human characteristics. It was unearthed in a mine tunnel near Mexico?s Copper Canyon around 1930. The Starchild Project is an informal research group that has coordinated numerous scientific investigations since its founding in February of 1999.
Formal research was carried out by credentialed experts in the USA, Canada, and UK. It included cranial analysis, dental analysis, X-ray analysis, CT scan analysis, radiocarbon dating (C-14), microscopic analysis of multiple bone preparations, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), bone composition analysis, statistical analysis, inorganic chemistry analysis, DNA analysis, and other investigations into possible natural explanations such as genetic defects, birth defects, and skull deformation resulting from cultural practices. (Complete details of these studies can be found in the book "The Starchild Skull" by Lloyd Pye).
The collective conclusions were that the combination of skull features were unique and could not be explained by any known deformity or combination of deformities, mutation, cultural practices, genetic disorders, or illness. If a human were born today with physical abnormalities like the Starchild, it could not survive. Yet something about the essential nature of this being permitted it to do what would be impossible for a normal human.
Realizing the ultimate answer could come only from genetic testing, in 2003 the Starchild Project commissioned a DNA analysis of the Starchild Skull?s bone by Trace Genetics of Davis, California. (Trace Genetics was acquired by DNA Print Genomics in 2005.) Its owners and principal geneticists were Dr. Ripan Malhi and Dr. Jason Eshleman, specialists in the recovery of ancient DNA, meaning DNA from samples more than 50 years old. Dr. Malhi and Dr. Eshleman had previously worked on the high profile 5,000 to 9,000 + year old Kennewick Man skeleton found in Washington State in 1996.
We can be supremely confident that the confirmed total of the Starchild?s differences will fall between 800 and 1000 bp, while all humans are 120 or less. Using the most effective techniques science can bring to bear to solve any problem of genetic heritage, techniques that are used with finality in court cases worldwide, the Starchild is shown to be nowhere near the ballpark of human or prehuman. This result is definitive.
Without doubt, without question, without fail, recovering both of the Starchild?s entire genomes will prove it to be so astonishingly far from humans that the only reasonable, logical, acceptable term for it will profoundly change human history forever...ALIEN!